Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Roe V. Wade Summary

Roe v. Swim, 410 U. S. 113 (1973) Facts: Texas had passed a law that made it unlawful for ladies who were hoping to have a fetus removal, except if, according to clinical counsel, given to spare the life of the mother. Jane Roe was an unmarried, pregnant lady. She couldn't get a legitimate premature birth in Texas since her life was not imperiled by proceeding with her pregnancy. A law existed in Georgia around then likewise and was heard as a case identifying with it. Issue:Whether or not a pregnant lady has a sacred option to end the pregnancy of her child by methods for fetus removal. The issue likewise includes whether it is in the province of Texas interests to safeguard the life of the kid and additionally mother, also to build up under what conditions a clinical premature birth is permitted. Choice and Reasoning: The Roe v. Swim choice expressed that a lady, with her primary care physician, could pick premature birth in prior long stretches of pregnancy, and with limitations i n later months, in view of the privilege to privacy.Roe v. Swim was chosen fundamentally because of the Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Court's choice for this situation was that the Ninth Amendment secured a woman’s (person’s) right to protection. Basic Analysis The Supreme Court case I have examined above of 1973 is one I accept might be upset later on. Despite the fact that it has pertinence to the ninth change as I have past expressed, there are many individuals today that appear to differ with the court’s decision.After perusing this case brief I despite everything hold my assessment of being, â€Å"pro-decision. † Having not made fetus removal totally unlawful, while setting limitations on it, was a brilliant activity, produced into results the setting of this case. The Supreme Court not just contrasted its choice with the ninth change yet in addition to the case identified with it from Georgia. The choice of the case I have t alked about held to be a proper one setting restrictions on fetus removal will at present permitting it for under the specifications set out by the Supreme Court.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Fingerprints free essay sample

Fingerprints are created from a special way that the vast majority can't think about how they come to fruition (Fingerprint, 2012). There are a wide range of kinds of examples on a person’s finger. Where do a person’s fingerprints originate from? Fingerprints create in a hatchling developing in the mother’s belly, between the gestational weeks 12 and 16. The advancement of the prints is the point at which the hatchling is contacting things inside their mom, similar to when a child kicks or pushes around inside the belly (Fingerprint, 2012) this is the explanation being that no two individuals, not even indistinguishable twins, has a similar unique finger impression design. Dactylography is known as the historical backdrop of fingerprints (Fingerprint, 2012). Before Americans found characterizing fingerprints; proof from Nova Scotia, Ancient Babylon, and the Chinese T’ang Dynasty were available inside the eighth century (Lyman, 2011) Their utilization of the unique mark was intrigued on reports utilized for business and exchange (Lyman, 2011) The main known utilization of fingerprinting was created by Sir William Herschel in 1858, in Bengal, India ( Lyman, 2011). We will compose a custom article test on Fingerprints or on the other hand any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Herschel expected locals to unique mark and sign business contracts. Alphonse Bertillon built up the Bertillon framework (Lyman, 2011). The Bertillon framework is a framework that recognized explicit hard pieces of the human body that Alphonse guaranteed could never show signs of change all through a person’s whole life expectancy. American’s depended on this technique for over 30 years as a methods for distinguishing proof. In 1903, a Supreme Court case demonstrated the framework to not be right. Michael D. Lyman states (2011),† The estimation of fingerprints as a methods for recognizing the uncertainty of the Bertillon framework and building up the worth and unwavering quality of individualized distinguishing proof for criminal suspects was therefor established† (p. 109). Before fingerprinting was built up, photographs, witnesses, and marking were the main methods of recognizing individuals (Lyman, 2011) Since at that point, ID of individuals has changed significantly. There are a wide range of examples and qualities of fingerprints (Lyman, 2011) Some models incorporate the curve circle, whorl, ulnar, focal pocket, connect, island, spot, and numerous others (Lyman, 2011). Every ha it’s own appearance, a few people have a large number of these, and some have not many, indeed no one’s fingerprints are actually similar (Lyman, 2011). This being the explanation that fingerprinting is the main demonstrated methods for recognizing an individual, other than DNA. Generally, fingerprints start as a baby contacts things in a mother’s belly (Fingerprints, 2012) The manner in which fingerprints were begun to be utilized was questioned from the start, and afterward came to be the most productive method of distinguishing proof. There are numerous examples and qualities that make up a unique mark and no two prints are the equivalent, not even in indistinguishable twins, who share a similar DNA.

Thursday, August 20, 2020

Group Learning Self-Evaluation Printable - Assessment Tool (4th-6th Grade)

Group Learning Self-Evaluation Printable - Assessment Tool (4th-6th Grade) Have your students fill out this group evaluation form to record their group's dynamic and success after a project. Scott Foresman, an imprint of Pearson Grade: 4 || 6 Subjects: Mathematics (4,998) TYPE: Classroom Tools (344) Worksheets (13,378) Holidays: Mathematics Education Month (262) Scott Foresman, an imprint of Pearson, the world's leading elementary educational publisher. Its line of educational resources supports teachers and helps schools and districts meet demands for adequate yearly progress and reporting.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

A Military History Timeline of the 1900s

This timeline chronicles the military history of the last hundred plus years and includes WWI, WWII, Korea, Vietnam, and dozens of other conflicts. 1900s September 7, 1901 - Boxer Rebellion ends in ChinaMay 31, 1902 - Second Boer War: Fighting ends with the Treaty of VereenigingFebruary 8, 1904 - Russo-Japanese War: Fighting begins when the Japanese attack the Russian fleet at Port ArthurJanuary 2, 1905 - Russo-Japanese War: Port Arthur SurrendersSeptember 5, 1905 - Russo-Japanese War: The Treaty of Portsmouth ends the conflict 1910s April 21-November 23, 1914 - Mexican Revolution: American forces land and occupy Vera CruzJuly 28, 1914 - World War I: The conflict begins when Austria-Hungary declares war on SerbiaAugust 23, 1914 - World War I: British forces join the fray at the Battle of MonsAugust 23-31, 1914 - World War I: The Germans win a stunning victory at the Battle of TannenbergAugust 28, 1914 - World War I: The Royal Navy wins the Battle of Heligoland Bight.October 19-November 22, 1914 - World War I: Allied forces hold at the First Battle of YpresNovember 1, 1914 - World War I: Vice Admiral Maximilian von Spees German East Asia Squadron wins the Battle of Coronel.November 9, 1914 - World War I: HMAS Sydney defeats SMS Emden at the Battle of CocosDecember 16, 1914 - World War I: German warships raid Scarborough, Hartlepool, and WhitbyDecember 25, 1914 - World War I: The Christmas Truce begins along parts of the Western FrontJanuary 24, 1915 - World War I: The Royal Navy wins the Battle of Dogger BankApril 22-May 25, 1915 - World War I: Allied and German forces fight the Second Battle of YpresSeptember 25-October 14 - World War I: British forces take heavy losses during the Battle of LoosDecember 23, 1916 - World War I: British Commonwealth forces win the Battle of Magdhaba in the Sinai DesertMarch 9, 1916 - Mexican Revolution: The forces of Pancho Villa raid across the border and burn Columbus, NMOctober 31-November 7, 1917 - World War I: General Sir Edmund Allenby wins the Third Battle of GazaApril 6, 1917 - World War I: The United States enters the warJune 7, 1917 - World War I: General John J. Pershing arrives in England to take command of US forces in EuropeOctober 24-November 19, 1917 - World War I: Italian troops are routed at the Battle of CaporettoNovember 7, 1917 - Russian Revolution: The Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government, beginning the Russian Civil WarJanuary 8, 1918 - World War I: President Woodrow Wilson outlines his Fourteen Points to CongressJune 1-28, 1 918 - World War I: US Marines win the Battle of Belleau WoodSeptember 19-October 1, 1918 - World War I: British forces crush the Ottomans at the Battle of MegiddoNovember 11, 1918 - World War I: An armistice is concluded ending World War I in a victory for the Allies.June 28, 1919 - World War I: The Treaty of Versailles officially ends the war. 1920s June 1923 - Russian Civil War: Fighting ends with the Red capture of Vladivostok and the collapse of the Provisional Priamur GovernmentApril 12, 1927 - Chinese Civil War: Fighting begins between the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party 1930s October 1934 - Chinese Civil War: The Long March retreat begins with Chinese Communists marching approx. 8,000 miles over 370 daysOctober 3, 1935 - Second Italo-Abyssinian War: The conflict begins when Italian troops invade EthiopiaMay 7, 1936 - Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Fighting ends with the capture of Addis Ababa and the Italian annexation of the countryJuly 17, 1936 - Spanish Civil War: The conflict begins following an attempted coup dà ©tat by Nationalist forcesApril 26, 1937 - Spanish Civil War: The Condor Legion bombs GuernicaSeptember 6-22, 1937 - Spanish Civil War: Republican forces are defeated at the Battle of El MazucoSeptember 29/30, 1938 - World War II: The Munich Agreement cedes the Sudetenland to Nazi GermanyApril 1, 1939 - Spanish Civil War: Nationalist forces crush the final Republican resistance ending the war.September 1, 1939 - World War II: Nazi Germany invades Poland beginning World War IINovember 30, 1939 - Winter War: Fighting between the Soviet Union and Finland begins when Russian troops cross the border following the faked shelling of MainilaDecember 13, 1939 - World War II: British and German naval forces fight the Battle of the River Plate 1940s February 16, 1940 - World War II: British and German forces violated Norwegian neutrality in the Altmark IncidentMarch 12, 1940 - Winter War: The Moscow Peace Treaty ends the war in the Soviets favorJune 22, 1940 - World War II: After a six-week campaign, Germany defeats France and forces the British to evacuate from DunkirkJuly 3, 1940 - World War II: The Royal Navy attacks Mers el KebirJuly 10-October 31, 1940 - World War II: The Royal Air Force wins the Battle of BritainSeptember 17, 1940 - World War II: Operation Sea Lion, the German invasion of Britain, is indefinitely postponedNovember 11/12, 1940 - World War II: In a daring nighttime raid, British aircraft strike the Italian fleet at the Battle of TarantoDecember 8, 1940 - World War II: British forces in Egypt launch Operation Compass which sweeps across the desert driving the Italians deep into LibyaMarch 11, 1941 - World War II: Pres. Franklin Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease ActMarch 27-29, 1941 - World War II: British naval forces defeat the Italians at the Battle of Cape MatapanApril 6-30, 1941 - World War II: German forces win the Battle of GreeceMay 24, 1941 - World War II: HMS Hood is sunk at the Battle of the Denmark StraitMay 27, 1941 - World War II: Following aerial attacks from HMS Ark Royal and fire from British battleships, the German battleship Bismarck is sunk in the North AtlanticJune 22, 1941 - World War II: German forces invade the Soviet Union opening the Eastern FrontSeptember 8, 1941-January 27, 1944 - World War II: German forces conduct the Siege of Leningrad but fail to capture the city.October 2, 1941-January 7, 1942 - World War II: The Soviets win the Battle of MoscowDecember 7, 1941 - World War II: Japanese aircraft attack the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor bringing the United States into the warDecember 8-23, 1941 - World War II: Japan wins the Battle of Wake IslandDecember 8-25, 1941 - World War II: The British are defeated at the Battle of Hong KongDecember 10, 1941 - World War II: HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse are sunk by Japanese aircraftJanuary 7-April 9, 1942 - World War II: Allied forces conduct the  defense of BataanJanuary 31-February 15, 1942 - World War II: The Japanese win the  Battle of SingaporeFebruary 27, 1942 - World War II: The Allies are defeated at the  Battle of the Java SeaMarch 31-April 10 - World War II: Japanese forces conduct the  Indian Ocean RaidApril 18, 1942 - World War II: The planes of the  Doolittle Raid  bomb JapanMay 4-8, 1942 - World War II: US forces turn back the Japanese advance against Port Moresby at the  Battle of the Coral Sea. Fought entirely by aircraft, it was first naval battle in which the opposing ships never sighted each other.May 5-6, 1942 - World War II: US and Filipino forces surrender after the  Battle of CorregidorMay 26-June 21, 1942 - World War II:  General Erwin Rommel  wins the  Battle of GazalaJune 4-7, 1942 - World War II: The US Pacific Fleet defeats the Japanese at the  Battle of Midway, turning the tide in the PacificJuly 1-27, 1942 - World War II: Axis forces are halted at the  First Battle of El AlameinAugust 7, 1942 - World War II: Allied forces go on the offensive in the Pacific by  landing on GuadalcanalAugust 9, 1942 - World War II: Japanese naval forces win the  Battle of Savo IslandAugust 9-15, 1942 - World War II: The Royal Navy resupplies Malta during  Operation PedestalAugust 19, 1942 - World War II: The  Dieppe Raid  ends in disaster for Allied troopsAugust 24-25, 1942 - World War II: Allied and Japanese forces fight the  Battle of the Eastern SolomonsAugust 25-September 7, 1942 - World War II: Allied force on New Guinea win the  Battle of Milne BayAugust 30-September 5, 1942 - World War II: British forces halt  Field Marshal Erwin Rommel  at the  Battle of Alam HalfaOctober 10/11, 1942 - World War II: Allied naval units win the  Battle of Cape EsperanceOctober 23-November 4, 1942 - World War II: British forces under  Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery  begin the  Second Battle of El AlameinOctober 25-27, 1942 - World War II: American and Japanese naval forces fight the  Battle of Santa CruzNovember 8-10, 1942 - World War II: American forces land in North Africa as part of  Operation TorchNovember 12-15, 1942 - World War II: Allied forces win the  Naval Battle of GuadalcanalNovember 27, 1942 - World War II: The  French fleet is scuttled  at Toulon during Operation LilaNovember 30, 1942 - World War II: Japanese forces win the  Battle of TassafarongaJanuary 29-30, 1943 - World War II: Japanese aircraft win the  Battle of Rennell IslandFebruary 19-25, 1943 - World War II: American troops area defeated at the  Battle of Kasserine PassMarch 2-4, 1943 - World War II: Allied aircraft win the  Battle of the Bismarck SeaApril 18, 1943 - World War II:  Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto  is killed by Allied aircraft during  Operation VengeanceApril 19-May 16, 1943 - Wo rld War II: The Germans suppress the  Warsaw Ghetto Uprising  in PolandMay 17, 1943 - World War II: As part of  Operation Chastise  RAF bombers strike dams in GermanyJuly 9, 1943 - World War II: Allied forces begin  Operation Husky  and invade SicilyAugust 17, 1943 - World War II: American bombers conduct the massive  Schweinfurt-Regensburg RaidSeptember 3-9, 1943 - World War II: American and British forces  land in ItalySeptember 26, 1943 - World War II: Australian commandoes conduct  Operation Jaywick  in Singapore HarborNovember 2, 1943 - World War II: American forces win the Battle of Empress Augusta BayNovember 20-23, 1943 - World War II: American forces  invade TarawaDecember 26, 1943 - World War II: British naval forces win the  Battle of the North CapeJanuary 22, 1944 - World War II: Allied forces begin Operation Shingle and open the  Battle of AnzioJanuary 31-February 3, 1944 - World War II: US troops fight the  Battle of KwajaleinFebruary 17-18, 1944 - World War II:  Operation Hailstone  sees Allied aircraft attack the Japanese anchorage at TrukFebruary 17-May 18, 1944 - World War II: Allied forces fight and win the  Battle of Monte CassinoMarch 17-23, 1944 - World War II: Allied forces win the  Battle of EniwetokMarch 24/25, 1944 - World War II: Allied POWs begin the  Great Escape  from Stalag Luft IIIJune 4, 1944 - World War II: Allied forces capture RomeJune 4, 1944 - World War II: Allied naval forces  capture  U-505June 6, 1944 - World War II: British airborne forces execute  Operation DeadstickJune 6, 1944 - World War II: The invasion of France begins with Allied troops  coming ashore in NormandyJune 15, 1944 - World War II: The Allied invasion of the Marianas begins with  landings on SaipanJune 19-20, 1944 - World War II: The US Navy wins the  Battle of the Philippine SeaJuly 21- August 10, 1944 - World War II: Allied troops  recapture GuamJuly 25-31, 1944 - World War II: Allied troops break out of Normandy during  Operation CobraAugust 15, 1944 - World War II: Allied troops land in southern France as part of  Operation DragoonAugust 25, 1944 - World War II: French forces liberate ParisSeptember 15-November 27, 1944 - World War II: Allied forces fight and win the  Battle of PeleliuSeptember 17, 1944 - World War II: American and British paratroopers land in Holland as part of  Operation Market-GardenOctober 23-26, 1944 - World War II: US naval forces defeat the Japanese at the  Battle of Leyte Gulf, opening the way for the invasion of the PhilippinesDecember 16, 1944 - World War II: German forces launch a massive offensive in the Ardennes, beginning the  Battle of the Bulge. It ends in a decisive Allied victory the following monthFebruary 9, 1945 - World War II:  HMS  Venturer  sinks  U-864  in the only known battle where one submerged submarine sank anotherFebruary 19, 1945 - World War II: US Marines land on  Iwo JimaMarch 8, 1945 - World War II : US forces secure the  Ludendorff Bridge  over the RhineMarch 24, 1945 - World War II: Allied forces airdrop over the Rhine during  Operation VarsityApril 1, 1945 - World War II: Allied forces  invade the island of OkinawaApril 7, 1945 - World War II: The battleship  Yamato  is sunk during  Operation Ten-GoApril 16-19, 1945 - World War II: Soviet forces win the  Battle of the Seelow HeightsApril 29-May 8, 1945: World War II:  Operations Manna Chowhound  deliver food to the starving population of the NetherlandsMay 2, 1945 - World War II:  Berlin falls  to Soviet forcesMay 7, 1945 - World War II: Nazi Germany surrenders to the Allies, ending the war in EuropeAugust 6, 1945 - World War II: The  B-29 Superfortress  Enola Gay  drops the  first atom bomb  on the city of HiroshimaSeptember 2, 1945 - World War II: The Japanese surrender aboard the battleship  USS  Missouri  ending the war in the PacificDecember 19, 1946 - First Indochina War: Fight ing begins between French and Viet Minh forces around Hanoi​October 21, 1947 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1947: The war starts following the invasion of Kashmir by Pakistani troopsMay 14, 1948 - Arab-Israeli War: Following its declaration of independence, Israel is attacked by its Arab neighborsJune 24, 1948 - Cold War: Berlin Blockade begins leading to the  Berlin AirliftJuly 20, 1949 - Arab-Israeli War: Israel makes peace with Syria ending the war 1950s June 25, 1950 - Korean War: North Korean troops cross the 38th Parallel beginning the  Korean WarSeptember 15, 1950 - Korean War: United Nations troops under  General Douglas MacArthur  land at Inchon  and push the North Koreans back to the Yalu RiverNovember 1950 - Korean War: Chinese forces enter the conflict, driving UN forces back over the 38th Parallel.November 26-December 11, 1950 - Korean War: UN forces fight the Chinese at the  Battle of Chosin ReservoirMarch 14, 1951 - Korean War: Seoul is liberated by UN troopsJune 27, 1953 - Korean War: Fighting ends following the establishment of a cease-fire between UN and North Korean/Chinese forcesJuly 26, 1953 - Cuban Revolution: The revolution begins following an attack on the Moncada BarracksMay 7, 1954 - First Indochina War: The French fortress at  Dien Bien Phu  falls effectively ending the warNovember 1, 1954 - Algerian War: National Liberation Front guerrillas attack French targets across Algeria beginning the warO ctober 26, 1956 - Suez Crisis: Israeli troops drop into the Sinai, beginning the conquest of the peninsula 1960s April 15-19, 1961 - Cuban Revolution: The American-backed Bay of Pigs invasion failsJanuary 1959 -  Vietnam War: The North Vietnamese Central Committee issues a secret resolution calling for an armed struggle in South VietnamAugust 2, 1964 - Vietnam War: The  Gulf of Tonkin Incident  occurs when North Vietnamese gunboats attack American destroyersMarch 2, 1965 - Vietnam War: Operation Rolling Thunder begins as US aircraft start bombing North VietnamAugust 1965 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1965: The conflict begins when Pakistan launches Operation Gibraltar in Indian KashmirAugust 17-24, 1965 - Vietnam War: US forces begin offensive operations in Vietnam with Operation StarlightNovember 14-18, 1965 - Vietnam War: US troops fight the  Battle of Ia Drang  in VietnamJune 5-10, 1967 - Six-Day War: Israel attacks and defeats Egypt, Syria, and JordanNovember 3-22, 1967 - Vietnam War: American forces win the  Battle of Dak ToJanuary 21, 1968 - Vietnam War: North Vietnamese forces laun ch the Tet OffensiveJanuary 23, 1968 - Cold War: The  Pueblo  Incident  takes place when the North Koreans board and capture USS  Pueblo  in international watersApril 8, 1968 - Vietnam War:  US troops relieve the besieged Marines at Khe SanhMay 10-20, 1969 - Vietnam War: US troops fight the  Battle of Hamburger HillJuly 14-18, 1969 - Central America: El Salvador and Honduras fight the  Football War 1970s April 29, 1970 - Vietnam War: American and South Vietnamese forces begin attacking into CambodiaNovember 21, 1970 - Vietnam War: US Special Forces  raid the POW camp at Son TayDecember 3-16, 1971 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: The war begins when India intervenes in the Bangladesh Liberation WarMarch 30, 1972 - Vietnam War: The Peoples Army of North Vietnam begins the  Easter OffensiveJanuary 27, 1973 - Vietnam War: The Paris Peace Accords are signed ending US involvement in the conflictOctober 6-26, 1973 - Yom Kippur War: After initial losses, Israel defeats Egypt and SyriaApril 30, 1975 - Vietnam War: Following the  fall of Saigon, South Vietnam surrenders ending the warJuly 4, 1976 - International Terrorism:  Israeli commandoes land at Entebbe Airport  in Uganda and rescue the passengers of Air France Flight 139December 25, 1979 - Soviet-Afghan War: Soviet airborne forces enter Afghanistan beginning the conflict 1980s September 22, 1980 - Iran-Iraq War: Iraq invades Iran beginning a war that lasts eight yearsApril 2-June 14, 1982 - Falklands War: Following the Argentinean invasion of the Falklands, the islands are liberated by the BritishOctober 25-December 15, 1983 - Invasion of Grenada: After the deposition and execution of Prime Minister Maurice Bishop, US forces invade and capture the island.April 15, 1986 - International Terrorism: American aircraft  bomb Libya  in retaliation for an attack on a West Berlin night clubDecember 20, 1989-January 31, 1990 - Invasion of Panama: US forces invade Panama to oust dictator Manuel Noriega 1990s August 2, 1990 -  Gulf War: Iraqi troops invade KuwaitJanuary 17, 1991 - Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with American and coalition aircraft striking targets in Iraq and KuwaitFebruary 24, 1991 - Gulf War: Coalition ground forces advance into Kuwait and IraqFebruary 27, 1991 - Gulf War: Fighting ends as Kuwait is liberatedJune 25, 1991 - Former Yugoslavia: The first of the wars in the former Yugoslavia begins with the Ten-Day War in SloveniaMarch 24-June 10, 1999 - Kosovo War:  NATO aircraft bomb Yugoslav forces in Kosovo 2000s September 11, 2001 - War on Terror: Al Qaeda attacks the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in WashingtonOctober 7, 2001 - War on Terror: American and British aircraft begin bombing Taliban forces in AfghanistanDecember 12-17, 2001 - War on Terror: Coalition forces fight the  Battle of Tora BoraMarch 19, 2003 - Iraq War: US and British aircraft begin bombing Iraq as a prelude to the ground invasionMarch 24-April 4 - Iraq War: American forces fight the  Battle of NajafApril 9, 2003 - Iraq War: US forces occupy BaghdadDecember 13, 2003 - Iraq War: Saddam Hussein is captured by members of the US 4th Infantry Division and Task Force 121November 7-16, 2004 - Iraq War: Coalition forces fight the  Second Battle of Fallujah

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

To What Extent Is Othello Responsible For His Own Downfall

A tragedy is the story of an individual whose downfall is brought about by specific defects in his character, tragic flaws. The play, Othello, is a twisted tale of deceit and revenge. Iago creates an alternate world filled with lies, that unfortunately consumes the trusting and naive Othello. Othellos downfall comes about due to a combination of the influence of Iago and the fatal character flaws of the otherwise virtuous Othello. Iago absolutely hates Othello. He is angry with Othello for promoting Michael Cassio, an officer with no real battle experience, to lieutenant over him. Once Iago comes up with a plan for revenge it does not take very long for him to set it into motion. Iagos plan is to cause Michael Cassio to fall out of†¦show more content†¦Desdemona would never even think of cheating on Othello, and confirms this in Act 4, Scene 3 when she says, Beshrew me if I would do such a wrong for the whole world. Even though Desdemona is a virtuous and innocent creature Othello still comes to believe that she is a whore who has slept with Cassio while married to him. Othello doesnt show himself to be a jealous person at the beginning but through Iagos manipulation, we see the emotion work at full force. Deceived by Iagos skillful lies and convincing techniques, Othello must face emotions he cant handle. Whenever he thinks of Cassio or his wife, an image of the two making love to each other in Othellos bed appears. His jealousy literally drives him mad. Othello becomes so enraged with the thought and even the sight of her that in Act 4, Scene 1 he calls her devil and strikes her in public. In fact he becomes so enraged with her that in Act 5, Scene 2 he states, Yet she must die, else shell betray more men. Later in that scene he proceeds to smother her to death. In actuality the only evidence that Othello has to prove her infidelity is the handkerchief that Iago places in Cassios house, and of course the words of Iago, whom he believes he can trust. His perception and conclusions are replaced by fury and hatred. However, the Othello is too late to realize what hes done, and consequently this results in many lives lost, including hisShow MoreRelatedComparing the Downfalls of Sophocles Oedipus and Shakespeares Othello1262 Words   |  6 Pages Oedipus and Othello were both honorable and heroic men that became the victims of tragic downfalls that can be compared and contrasted with each other. Sophocles, the writer of Oedipus the King, and Williams Shakespeare, the writer of Othello, were both enormously influential playwrights of their respective generations and their legacy continues today. The two playwrights made their masterpieces during different eras; Sophocles life coincided with the Golden Age of Greek tragedy and ShakespeareRead MoreA Play of Love Turned Bad: Shakespeares Othello Essay1524 Words   |  7 PagesShakespeare’s famous play Othello is a play of love that has turned bad by the unfounded jealousy of the protagonist character Othello. Arguably the contribution of Othello’s susceptibility to manipulation, his weaknesses and the manipulation of other characters tactics such as Iago each contribute to the downfall of Othello. However, to the extent of which each is more significant varies a nd this is what will be analysed in this essay. Like many of Shakespeare’s tragic plays each has to have aRead MoreEssay about Character Study of Iago in William Shakespeares Othello1225 Words   |  5 PagesCharacter Study of Iago in William Shakespeares Othello In Othello, Iago works to bring about the downfall of the characters that he hates, particularly Othello and Michael Cassio. In order to do this, he uses not only the weaknesses of his victims, but their strengths and good qualities as well. Iago says this about Desdemona: So will I turn her virtue into pitch, And out of her own goodness makes the net That shall enmesh them all (Act 2 Scene 3) Read MoreCompare the Presentation of the Themes Obsession and Control Found in The Collector, Othello and The Picture of Dorian Gray2681 Words   |  11 Pagespresentation of the themes obsession and control found in The Collector, Othello and The Picture of Dorian Gray Shakespeare employs obsession as a thematic device extensively in Othello with many characters exhibiting complexes which come into direct conflict with the fixations of others, highlighting the self-destructive and all-consuming nature of obsession. This is reinforced by the climax of the play, the deaths of Othello, Desdemona and Emilia and Iago’s subsequent arrest and torture. SimilarlyRead MoreEssay on The Variety of Themes in Othello2340 Words   |  10 PagesThe Variety of Themes in Othello  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚   In the Shakespearean tragedy Othello the number and description of themes is open to discussion. With the help of literary critics, we can analyze this subject in detail.    In the essay â€Å"Wit and Witchcraft: an Approach to Othello† Robert B. Heilman discusses the ancient’s instinctive reaction to the love-theme of the play:    Before coming directly to the forming of the love-theme that differentiates Othello from other Shakespeare playsRead MoreEssay on Othello3188 Words   |  13 Pages Books related to Othello Othello - The protagonist and tragic hero of the play. A Moor commanding the armies of Venice, he is a celebrated general and heroic figure whose quot;free and open naturequot; will enable Iago to twist his love for his wife Desdemona into a powerful jealousy. Desdemona - The daughter of a Venetian Senator, and Othellos bride. The most sympathetic character in the play, she is deeply in love with her husband, and her purity contrasts strongly with Iagos wickedness. IagoRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet Essay1591 Words   |  7 PagesJuliet, the tragic story of two â€Å"star-cross’d lovers† (Shakespeare, 5) who pursue their love for each other despite the feud between their families, is considered by some to be one of Shakespeare’s greatest works; however, the question of whether it is his greatest tragedy remains under dispute. This play is different from other Shakespearean tragedies in that in several ways, it does not fit the traditional characteristics or structure of a tragic work. It can be feasibly argued that this, as well asRead Moreâ€Å"Aristotle’s Definition of the Tragic Hero and Irony in Tragedy† Oedipus Rex, Othello, and Death of a Salesman3217 Words   |  13 PagesAristotelian theory which leads us to his definition of the tragic hero. Aristotle’s conceptualization of tragedy and all that it encompasses is widely revered and accepted; setting the standard previously and contemporaneously. The interpretation of his definition of tragedy is ambiguous, but generally states that tragedy should evoke pity and fear within the viewer for the purpose of catharsis, or purgation of senses sequencing the climax of a tragedy. (Battin) This elicits his definition of the tragic heroRead More Othello’s The meland3037 Words   |  13 PagesOthello’s Themeland  Ã‚        Ã‚   Built on a broad base of multiple themes, Othello is one of William Shakespeare’s most popular   tragedies. Let’s sift through the themes and try to rank them in significance.    In the Introduction to The Folger Library General Reader’s Shakespeare, Louis B. Wright and Virginia A. LaMar consider the arch-villainy of the ancient to be the most potent theme:    Othello has been described as Shakespeare’s most perfect play. Critics of dramatic structure

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Priority Sector Lending in India Free Essays

Definition and more details5 Priority sector: A need5 Priority Sector Target: Financial Reforms Effect6 Effect of reforms on priority sector lending:6 Priority Sector: Specific sector guidelines8 Agriculture8 Small enterprises8 Weaker section:9 Other sectors9 Priority Sector: present status10 Participating Entities : Targets to be met10 Participating Entities : How much is achieved11 Public Sector banks11 Private Sector banks11 Foreign banks12 Participating Entities : penalties in case of failure in achieving the target12 Priority Sector : Advantages12 Priority Sector : Major Issues13 Strategies Ahead13 Exhibits15 References18 INTRODUCTION Priority sector bank lending was mainly started by the government to reach the unbanked areas through regular banks which were till that time not much willing to go to rural and undeveloped areas. It was one most important tool in our financial policy to compel banks to increase their loanable customers. Before independence, banks were mostly privately owned and they used to lend only to the sectors in which they were assured of returns. We will write a custom essay sample on Priority Sector Lending in India or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to the reports from 1940s, 79% of bank finances were made available to industry and commerce. Of that amount too, around 32% went to large industries of jute, cotton and sugar mills. When looking at the less rosy picture, the advances to agriculture sector stood a meager 4%. Post independence, according to RBI survey of 1954, in 1951-52, of all credit disbursal by credit agencies to cultivators, only 7. 3 % was from institutional credit agencies. Of this small contribution, the part of banks was only 0. 9%. Rest was given by government and cooperative agencies. From this statistics, it is clear that the rest of the credit was availed by the cultivators from non-institutional credit agencies. When the interest rates charged by these agencies was checked, they were found to be usuriously high with professional moneylenders charging 41. 9% interest rate while agricultural moneylenders charged 23. 9% interest rate which was 5-6 times more than the normal bank rate. It shows that if a farmer is getting loan at this interest rate, chances are more that he will never be able to repay it fully and fall in the vicious circle of loans. By getting working capital at such high interest rates, it was equally difficult to breakeven. So, agriculture and small and medium enterprises were in deep need for credit at easy terms. PRIORITY SECTOR DEFINITION AND MORE DETAILS Priority sector and its coverage area kept changing all through these years, mostly due to economic and political pressures. Although its definition can be divided in two parts i. e. pre-reform and post reform period. Pre reform period definition: â€Å"It included agriculture, Small scale industry (including setting up of industrial estates), small road and water transport operators, small business, retail trade, professional and self employed persons, state sponsored organizations for SC/STs, educational loans granted to individuals by banks under schemes, Credit schemes for weaker sections and refinance by sponsor banks to Regional Rural Banks. † About the post reform definition we will talk later in details when dealing in the section about priority sector guidelines. PRIORITY SECTOR: A NEED Population support and employment generation: According to the definition of priority sector it covers about 70% of India’s population by rough estimates. So, by making it mandatory for the banks to lend to priority sector, government is actually trying to cover a big part of population. Priority sector mostly includes agriculture and allied sector which employs largest number of people in ou r country. †¢Freedom from non-institutional credit: The priority sector cut out by government was mostly the one which was earlier taking loans from non-institutional sources and was always indebted because of usurious rates of interest. By creating priority sector lending, it was tried to make institutional credit available to a bigger section, at affordable interest rates. †¢Willingness of banks: Most of the banks were not willing to lend to this sector because of the risk involved here as well as more paperwork required to lend smaller loans to large number of people. They were happy lending to urban sector which was more reliable and trustworthy. They preferred lending to industry, commerce, trade and securities as their traditional loanees and who were supposed to default less. Location of banks: Banks were earlier situated mostly in urban area where the business was and so, it was geographically also difficult for them to lend to rural and backward areas where there was no banking network earlier. It was difficult to know about the credit history of borrower and the potential ability of loaned to repay the loan as well as potential of the project for which loan was to be given. So, they were skeptical abou t loaning to those sectors. †¢Institutional credit: By allowing priority sector credit to flow, RBI and government actually allowed large amount of institutional credit to flow in this area. So, as it became mandatory for the banks to complete certain target for priority sector, they started searching for viable projects and loaners who can successfully repay the loan. For this to happen branches were opened in rural areas and people were encouraged to take loan from banks. Many people availed loan under priority sector lending and got involved in successful enterprises. PRIORITY SECTOR: FINANCIAL REFORMS EFFECT After financial sector reforms, priority sector lending underwent lots of change. As earlier, it was only focused towards weaker and rural section of society but afterwards it included many new sectors as well as the definition of earlier sectors was widened to include more areas in them: Priority sector targets are: Table 1: Priority Sector Targets to be achieved by Banks Before 1991 After 1991 Total priority sector credit 40% of net bank credit 40% of net bank credit Agricultural credit 18% of net bank credit 18% of net bank credit Weaker section credit 10% of net bank credit 10% of net bank credit Export credit – 12% of net bank credit for foreign banks SSI credit – 10% of net credit for foreign banks Source: Reserve Bank of India Banking norms EFFECT OF REFORMS ON PRIORITY SECTOR LENDING: A chorological sequence of changes in priority sector lending policy is given below which show how the definition of priority sector has changed in all these years: 1. 1992-1993: In the light of reforms, and many new industries coming up in all sectors, government and RBI decided to help out industry with credit facilities and asked banks to fulfill demand of small scale industries upto Rs. 100 lakh limit for setting institutional framework to rejuvenate potentially viable small scale industry units. . 1993-1994: The overall target of net bank credit to be given for priority sector remained unchanged but the direct and indirect target for lending to agricultural sector was clubbed together to make a sub target of 18% for agricultural lending. But, in this system also, the indirect lending was not supposed to extend one-fourth of the total sub target. Lending above this in indirect lending, was n ot to be considered in priority sector lending. At least 40% of total credit was supposed to go to small scale and khadi and village industries within limit of Rs. 5 lakh. Foreign banks were asked to revise their priority sector advance target from 10% to 32%. Two more sectors were included in that i. e. advances to small-scale industries and export sector were made with each being 10%. 3. 1995-1996: In case of any shortfall in PSL (agricultural sector), banks were required to contribute to Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF), which was set up under NABARD, the maximum of which was 1. 5 % of bank’s net credit. Shortfall in case of other areas, they were required to provide Rs. 1000 crores for financing in Khadi and Village Industries Commision (KVIC). All the refinances which was done to RRBs by the banks was now to be considered under priority sector lending. 4. 1996-1997: In this year Union Budget provided Rs. 2500 crore for RIDF fund. Export credit target increased from 10% to 12% in this year. Credit advanced to priority sector increased this year very much. From the last year numbers, it increased from 30. 37% of net bank credit to 32. 4%. 5. 1997-1998: The scope of priority sector lending was increased for road and water transport operators, with number of eligible vehicles increasing from ‘not more than six’ to ‘not more than ten’. The credit limit for housing in rural and urban areas also increased upto Rs. 5 lakh. 6. 1998-1999: In this year, the interest rate subsidy for loan in PSL was taken away on the argument that now priority sector lending is also commercially viable for banks. Banks were also given the option to invest the PSL shortfall by lending to NABARD/SIDBI, so the restriction of not lending to profitable sector was slowly being taken away. 7. 1999-00: Banks were asked to lend to NBFCs and MFIs under priority sector, to enable them to lend to rural and weaker section. INSTITUTIONAL AND NON-INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT IN INDIA Before independence, the credit which was available to farmers was just non-institutional credit or in other words private money lenders. But, after independence, government took major steps to uproot this problem which was eating up the poor population and was hampering with the country’s economic growth. In 1951, institutional credit accounted to 92. 7% of the total credit availed (Refer Graph-1) where as all these reforms positively impacted the credit scenario in India making the Non-institutional credit accounted to be 38. % in the year 2002. Graph 1: Trend of Institutional and Non-institutional credit in India PRIORITY SECTOR: SPECIFIC SECTOR GUIDELINES AGRICULTURE 1. Direct finance: Finance given to individual farmers (including SHG JLG) for agricultural and allied activities are included under this sector. This includes short-term loans for raising crops, advances upto 10 lakh against pledge of agricultural produce f or maximum 12 months period, working capital and term loans, for purchase of land, to indebted distressed farmers, for pre and post harvest activities. Loans given to partnerships, corporate and institutions for agricultural activities, and upto 1 crore for most of the activities mentioned above also come under direct finance. 2. Indirect finance: It covers vast range i. e. corporate, Primary agricultural Credit societies, Farmers service societies, Large sized Adivasi Multi Purpose Societies, cooperative societies, and for the construction of warehouse, agricultural input dealers, arthias, NCDC, NBFCs, NGOs, MFIs, RRBs and overdraft upto 25000 for no-frills account in rural and semi-urban areas. SMALL ENTERPRISES 1. Direct finance: a. For manufacturing enterprises, for small enterprises the upper cap for taking loans is less than 5 crores, while for micro enterprises it is upto 25 lakh only. b. For service enterprises, for small enterprises it is upto 2 lakh, while for micro enterprises it is only 10 lakh. c. For khadi and village industries it is upto 60% of small enterprise segment. 2. Indirect finance: a. It is made available for the person involved in marketing activities of artisans, village and cottage industries. b. Under this Loans made by NABARD, SIDBI and commercial banks to NBFCs and cooperatives involved in this sector also come. WEAKER SECTION: In weaker section, small and marginal farmers with less than 5 acres land holding, landless labourers, artisans, village and cootage industries, beneficiaries of SGSY, SC, ST, DRI, SJSRY, SLRS, self help groups, distressed poor, minority communities etc are included. They are given loans under priority sector loans. OTHER SECTORS Retail trade : Retailers involved in essential commodities, consumer co-operative stores, private retail traders, upto the limit of Rs. 20 lakh. Micro-credit : For poor indebted borrower of non-institutional credit, it is given against collateral or group security. The upper limit for it is upto Rs. 50000 per borrower. State sponsored organization: It is for scheduled castes/tribes for extending credit for purchase of input or for marketing of output. Education: Within India the maximum cap for education loan granted is 10 lakh, while outside India it is 20 lakh. It is applicable for individuals as well as NBFCs. Housing: a. For purchase and construction of houses, the maximum loan allowed is 20 lakh. b. For repair of houses, the maximum loan allowed is 1 lakh in rural India and 2 lakh in urban areas. c. For government agencies for construction of dwelling units, or for slum dwellers, upto a maximum of Rs. 5 lakh is allowed. PRIORITY SECTOR: PRESENT STATUS PARTICIPATING ENTITIES: TARGETS TO BE MET The Reserve Bank of India from time to time has issued a number of guidelines/instructions/directives to banks in lending credit to Priority sector. In priority sector various banks that are involved are- public and private sector bank under domestic banks and foreign banks. There are separate targets to be met for all the banks which are set by the RBI. RBI issues a master circular containing all the guidelines for incorporation of priority sector lending. If the targets are not met, then various penalties are to be borne by them. The targets set for the domestic and foreign banks working in India are already mentioned before in Table-1. The total advances that a domestic bank has to offer for the priority sector is 40% where as for foreign banks working in India is 32 %. These advances are further bifurcated into the advances provided to agricultural sector, small scale industries (SSI), export credit and weaker sections. However, domestic banks don’t have to contribute to SSI and foreign banks don’t have to contribute to agricultural advances and weaker sections. Over the years, the advances provided to this sector are increasing in gross value and some other sectors like education, housing, retail trade which were not the part of this sector previously were also included. The trend observed during the last three years is explained in the graph provided below. In the year 2006, the advances offered by the public sector banks were Rs. 409. 745 thousand crores where as private sector provided Rs. 06. 556 thousand crores. Then in year 2008, these advances increased to Rs. 605. 965 thousand crores and Rs. 165. 225 thousand crores by public and private sector bank respectively. This marked a growth rate of 48% in public sector and 53. 5 % in private sector. Source: Reserve Bank of India- Trend and Progress of Indian Banking 2008-09 The share of various sectors i. e. agriculture, SSI, education, housing have also registered a change as shown in the figure given below. The share of advances provided to agriculture sector is more or less same where as the dvances provided to SSI has been replaced by small enterprises, housing and education where housing accounted for 30% of the advances and education accounted for 25% of the advances. Source: Reserve Bank of India- Trend and Progress of Indian Banking 2008-09 The rationale of including these sectors was to provide the holistic development to the poor people. It was understood that it’s not just the credit requirement which has to be fulfilled but also the education which would ensure the socio-economic development of the society. In all, those sectors which can impact large section of populations are to be a part of priority sector. But, how efficiently are banks able to achieve these set targets – is still questionable. PARTICIPATING ENTITIES: HOW MUCH IS ACHIEVED PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS Exhibit-1 shows the targets achieved by public sector bank. The public sector banks were able to meet the target of 40% till 2005-06 but in 2007 they fell short by 0. 7%. There were 28 banks in total, out of which- seven banks failed to achieve the target (Allahabad Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Syndicate Bank, IDBI Ltd. , State Bank of India, State Bank of Mysore and State Bank of Patiala). However, only 8 banks were able to meet target of agricultural lending and only 7 for weaker sections. PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS Exhibit-2 shows the targets achieved by private banks in lending to the priority sector. Out of 26 private sector banks, four banks (Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. , Centurian Bank of Punjab Ltd. , Jammu and Kashmir Bank Ltd. and Karnataka Bank Ltd. ) didn’t achieve the target as stipulated for the priority sector lending. However, only three banks were successful in meeting agricultural credit target and no bank met the target for weaker sections. FOREIGN BANKS Exhibit-3 shows the targets achieved by foreign banks in lending to the priority sector. Out of 29 foreign banks working in India five banks (Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Citi Bank, HSBC Ltd. and Mizuho Corporate Bank) did not achieve the target. However, only Seven banks (Bank of Nova Scotia, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Citi Bank, HSBC Ltd. , JP Morgan Chase Bank, Mizuho Corporate Bank and Shinhan Bank) were not able to achieve SSI target and three banks (American Express Bank, Bank International Indonesia and Mizuho Corporate Bank) were not able to achieve the export credit target. The banks which failed to achieve the target have to pay the penalties decided by the RBI. PARTICIPATING ENTITIES: PENALTIES IN CASE OF FAILURE IN ACHIEVING THE TARGET DOMESTIC BANKS Domestic banks which fail to achieve the target have to contribute to Rural Infrastructure development Fund (RIDF) established with NABARD or funds with other financial institutions, as specified by RBI by giving them one month’s notice. The particulars of this fund are decided in the beginning of financial year. Interest rate and period of deposit are also to be decided by RBI. FOREIGN BANKS Foreign banks which fail to achieve the target have to contribute to Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) or funds with other financial institutions, as specified by RBI . The particulars of this fund are decided in the beginning of financial year. Interest rate and period of deposit are also to be decided by RBI. Non-achievement of meeting the priority sector targets are considered while granting regulatory approvals for various purposes. PRIORITY SECTOR: ADVANTAGES 1. Financial Inclusion – It provided credit availability for small-marginal farmers, and to those sections which were previously deprived of taking any credit from the institutions. 2. Previously because of high default rate amongst the weaker sections,the institutions were reluctant to give credit to those people which forces the farmers or the weaker people to go to the money-lenders who charged them high rate of interests (varying between 10% to 50%). Mandatory lending to priority sector has eradicated this problem and ensured advances by the institutions. 3. Poverty Alleviation – If the timely credit is provided to small households, they can give more inputs to their produces which will result in better productivity. In effect agricultural GDP grows, which helps in upliftment of both the primary and secondary sector which are dependent on small scale industries and agriculture, directly or indirectly. It generates more employment, hence, resulting in poverty alleviation. 4. Social Inclusion – Poorer sections previously were deprived of participating in various community activities. The rise in their livelihood has given them a strong support to participate in various social activities. PRIORITY SECTOR: MAJOR ISSUES 1. High Non-performing assets – Since borrowers are not able to repay the loan on time, have created a fear in the banks and provoke them to make slow disbursement of loans. 2. Quantitative targets –Since, the stringent targets has been set by RBI, this has resulted in lowering the quality of delivering targets. 3. Government interference – Due to the regional Government intervention, the more influential people get the loan, and the poorer still get ignored. So, rich gets more richer. 4. Transaction cost – Handling disbursement of huge quantity of small loans requires more time and labor. 5. Low absorption of credits -This occurs due to lack of capital infrastructure in agriculture and other small scale industries. 6. Low Profitability -Low rate of interest charged from the borrowers makes this sector vulnerable. STRATEGIES AHEAD 1. Initiatives by Government a) Recovery of Non-Performing Assets †¢Establishing Debt-recovery tribunals – this will act as a mediator between the bank and borrower and will help bank in better recovery from the borrowers. †¢Internal audit before sanctioning of loan should be done. b)Strengthen the cooperative bank network to increase credit advances to the farmers. c)Link crop-insurance with loan amount. This mitigates the risk for Lender and borrower. d)Promote group lending to people – group lending develops a collective responsibility amongst the borrowers which decreases the default rate. e)Government need to promote rigorous extension activities for promoting modern agricultural techniques for increasing production. f)Strict actions needs to be taken against the banks for not meeting the priority sector criteria. 2. Initiatives by Bank a)Banks should increase the term and delay the installments under term loan in case the borrowers are not able to repay in time. b)They should not charge compound interest on the loan amount. In a nutshell, Government need to strengthen backward and forward linkage both to provide inputs, increase productivity and develop markets. EXHIBITS Exhibit 1: Target achieved by Public Sector banks Exhibit 2: Target achieved by Private Banks Exhibit 3: Target achieved by foreign banks REFERENCES †¢Priority Sector lending information (2010). Retrieved on August 4, 2010 from-http://www. rbi. org. in/scripts/FAQView. aspx? Id=8 †¢Trends, issues and strategies (2010). Retrieved on Aug 5, 2010 from-http://www. academicjournals. org/jat/PDF/Pdf2009/December/Uppal. pdf †¢Planning Commission reports on labour and employment (2010). Retrieved on Aug 5, 2010 from-http://books. google. co. in/books? id=qOOmWsfqfe4Cpg=PA96lpg=PA96dq=priority+sector+lending+appraisalsource=blots=HZTEbRCSVosig=QtcebyqWJ5xWqkZ_TMdmPzCp4-4hl=enei=KbFaTLK7DISXrAe9u52-DAsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=9ved=0CEsQ6AEwCA#v=onepageqf=false †¢All India Debt and Investment Surveys (2002). Retrieved on August 6 ,2010 from- http://www. rbi. org. in/scripts/BS_SpeechesView. aspx? Id=298 †¢Trend and Progress of Indian Banking 2008-09 (2009). Retrieved on August 6, 2010 from- http://www. rbi. org. in/scripts/AnnualPublications. aspx? head=Trend%20and%20Progress%20of%20Banking%20in%20India How to cite Priority Sector Lending in India, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Secret Service free essay sample

The most obvious of its other activities is executive protection, which began after the assassination of President McKinley in 1901 (Treasury, 2002, Online). In the sass, Americas monetary system was very disorganized. Bills and coins were issued by each state through individual banks, which generated many types of legal currency. With so many different kinds of bills In circulation, it was easy for people to counterfeit money. The Secret Service officially went to work on July 5, 1865. He Civil War, was very successful in his first year, closing more than 200 counterfeiting plants. This success helped prove the value of the Secret Service, and in 1866 the National Headquarters was established in the Department of the Treasury building in Washington, D. C (Treasury, 2002, Online). During the evening of the same day President Lincoln established the Secret Service, he was assassinated at Fords Theatre in Washington, D. C. , by John Wilkes Booth.The country mourned as news spread that the President had been shot (White House, online). We will write a custom essay sample on The Secret Service or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It was the first time in our nations history that a President had been assassinated and it was the reason that the Congress eventually, after two more residential assassinations, added Presidential protection to the list of duties performed by the Secret Service. Since 1901, every President from Theodore Roosevelt on has been protected by the Secret Service.In 191 7, threats against the President became a felony and Secret Service protection was broadened to include all members of the First Family (White House, online). In 1951, protection of the Vice President and the President-elect was added. After the assassination of Presidential candidate Robert Kennedy in 1 968, President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) authorized the Secret Service to protect all Presidential candidates. Over the years, the Secret Services function has continued to change and grow.Its functions include: C] Protecting the President and Vice President and their families, candidates for those offices, former Presidents and their families, and visiting heads of foreign states and governments; Enforcing laws against counterfeiting currency, coins, or securities of the united States; 0 Enforcing laws against fraud or forgery of Government checks or bonds, and other securities and obligations of the United States; C] Investigating credit and debit card fraud, computer fraud, and electronic undo transfer fraud: D Furnishing physical security for the White House, the Main other cities. Treasury, 2002, Online). These functions are directly reflected, below, in their mission statement and fall into two distinct categories 0 the investigative mission and the protective mission. The United States Secret Service is mandated by statute and executive order to carry out two significant missions: protection and criminal investigations. The Secret Service protects the President and Vice President, their families, heads of state, and other designated individuals; investigates threats against these prosecutes; protects the White House, Vice Presidents Residence, and other buildings within Washington, D.C. ; and plans and Foreign Missions, implements security designs for designated National Special Security Events. The Secret Service also investigates violations of laws relating to counterfeiting of obligations and securities of the United States; financial crimes that include, but are not limited to, access device fraud, financial institution fraud, identity theft, computer fraud; and computer-based attacks on our nations financial, banking, and telecommunications infrastructure. Protection remains the Secret Services primary mission.The Secret Service Uniformed Division shares in accomplishing this mission through its protection of the White House and its immediate surroundings, as well as the residence of the Vice President, and over 170 foreign embassies located in Washington, D. C. Originally a force comprised of a few members of the military and the Metropolitan Police Department, it began formalized protection of the White House and its grounds in 1860. This unit was under the direction of the White House Military Aide until July 1, 1922 when President Warren G. Harding prompted the establishment of a White House Police Force.It was not until 1930, after an unknown intruder managed to walk into the White House dining room, that President Herbert Hoover recognized the need for the White House Police and the Secret Service to Join forces. President Hoover wanted the Secret Service to exclusively control every aspect of Presidential protection; therefore, Congress placed the supervision of the White House Police under the direction of the Chief of the Secret Service. In 1970, Public Law 91-217 expanded the role of the White House Police, newly named the Executive Protective Service, to include protection of politico missions in the Washington, D.C. ,area. Congress later added the protection of the Vice Presidents immediate family to the Executive Protective Services growing responsibilities in 1974. After several name revisions, the force officially adopted its current name, the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division in 1977. The Special Agent Division assists with the Secret Services protective mission through their work with personal protection. Agents in this division are responsible for the welfare, safety, and protection of certain eligible individuals. The SecretService protective methods are generally the same for all individuals protected. Permanent prosecutes, such as the President and the First Lady, have details of special agents assigned to them. Temporary prosecutes, such as candidates and foreign dignitaries, have details of special agents on temporary assignment from The Secret Service does not discuss methods or means in any detail, however generally speaking, the advance team surveys each site to be visited. From these surveys, the members determine manpower, equipment, hospitals, and evacuation routes for emergencies.Fire, rescue, and other public service personnel in the community are alerted. A command post is established with full communications facilities. The assistance of the military, federal, state, county, and local law enforcement organizations is a vital part of the entire security operation. Before the protectors arrival, the lead advance agent coordinates all law enforcement representatives participating in the visit. Personnel are posted and are alerted to specific problems associated with the visit. Intelligence information is discussed, identification specified, and emergency options outlined.Prior to the arrival of the protected, checkpoints are established, and access to the secured area is limited. During the visit, Secret Service and local law enforcement personnel form a network of support for members of the detail surrounding the protected. The Secret Service command post acts as the communication center for protective activities, monitors emergencies, and keeps all participants in contact with one another. After the visit, agents analyze every step of the protective operation, record unusual incidents, and suggest improvements for the future. Protective research is an integral component of all security operations.Agents and specialists assigned to protective research evaluate information received from law enforcement/intelligence agencies and a variety of other sources regarding individuals or groups who may pose a threat to Secret Service prosecutes. They review questionable letters and emails received at the White House and maintain a 24-hour operation to receive, coordinate and disseminate protection-related information. While most people associate the Secret Service with Presidential protection, their original mandate was to investigate the counterfeiting of U. S. Currencywhich they still do.The Secret Services primary investigative mission is to safeguard the payment and financial systems of the United States. This has been historically accomplished through the enforcement of the counterfeiting statutes to preserve the integrity of United States currency, coin and financial obligations. Since 1984, their investigative responsibilities have expanded to include crimes that involve financial institution fraud, computer and telecommunications fraud, false identification documents, access device fraud, advance fee fraud, electronic funds transfers, and money laundering as it relates to their core violations. Three different divisions assist the Secret Service in accomplishing this investigative mission the Special Agent Division, the Financial Crimes Division, and the Forensic Services Division. Due to my personal interests, I found the Forensic Services Division particularly interesting. Forensic examiners in the Secret Service Forensic Services Division (FSP) provide analysis for questioned documents, fingerprints, false identification, credit cards, and other related forensic science areas. Examiners use both instrumental and chemical analysis when reviewing evidence. FSP also manages the Secret Services polygraph program nationwide.The division coordinates photographic, Identification Program. In addition, FSP is responsible for handling the Forensic Hypnosis Program. Much of the forensic assistance the Secret Service offers is unique technology operated in this country only by FSP. The Secret Service has approximately 5,000 employees, and field offices located throughout the continental U. S. ; in Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerco Rich; and liaison offices in Paris, France; London, England; Bonn, Germany; Rome and Milan, Italy; Hong Kong, China; Ottawa, Montreal and Vancouver, Canada; Nicosia, Cyprus; Bogota, Colombia; Manila, Philippines; and Bangkok, Thailand.It has more than 2,100 special agents who are rotated throughout their careers between investigative and permanent protective assignments. Agents assigned to investigative duties in the Services field offices also serve as a source of additional manpower for temporary protective details, such as those for candidates or visiting foreign dignitaries. The Secret Service also has approximately 1,200 officers in the Uniformed Division. Officers of the Uniformed Division carry out their protective responsibilities through special support units (Counterspies, Canine Explosive Detection Team, Emergency ResponseTeam, Crime Scene Search Technicians, Special Operations Section, Magnetometers) and a network of fixed security posts, foot, bicycle, vehicular and motorcycle patrols. Numerous specialists in a wide variety of occupations contribute their expertise to the Secret Services investigative and protective missions. They include security specialists, electronics engineers, communications technicians, research psychologists, computer experts, armored, intelligence analysts, polygraph examiners, forensic experts, and professionals in many other fields.The United States Secret Service is dramatically different today than it was Just here years ago. This is primarily due to the events surrounding September 11, 2001. That morning, there were 4,600 employees of the Secret Service deployed around the world while a special c ontingent was with President George W. Bush at an elementary school. In a matter of minutes, the Secret Service deployed armed agents into Lafayette Park to clear it and evacuated the Capitol and west wing of the White House. Four planes had been hijacked by terrorists, the World Trade Center was in ashes, the Pentagon had been hit, and the nation knew that it was at war.What kind f war, and how it would involve the Secret Service would remain to be seen. On October 26, 2001, in a crowded White House Press Room, President George W. Bush signed the Patriot Act, a broad-sweeping anti-terrorism bill. The full text of his speech is included on the White House web site, along with a recorded TV version. The President explained in his speech that this bill is an essential step in defeating terrorism, while protecting the constitutional rights of all Americans [and giving] intelligence and law enforcement officials important new tools to fight a present danger (Bush, 2001, Online). The changes, effective today, will help counter a threat like no other our nation has ever faced. Weve seen the enemy, and the murder of thousands of innocent, unsuspecting people. They recognize no barrier of morality. They have no conscience. The terrorists cannot be reasoned with.. . But one thing is for certain: These terrorists must be pursued, they must be defeated, and they must be brought to Justice.. Since the 1 lath of September, the men and women of our intelligence and law enforcement agencies have been relentless in their response to Less than three days after the attack, the Secret Service held a press conference and he spokesman started out by pointing out that the Treasury Department has a strong personal agenda following the attack, since TAFT, Customs, IRS CLC and the Secret Service all had facilities at the World Trade Towers that were completely destroyed by Tuesdays terrorist actions (2001, FAST online).The spokesman then explained that in addition to the more traditional law enforcement role, Treasury is committed to fighting terrorism with every asset that we have available and then announced that Treasury has established an inter-agency team dedicated to the disruption of terrorist fundraising. The team is designed to increase our ability to identify foreign terrorist groups, assess their sources and methods of fundraising, and provide information that will make clear to law enforcement officials how terrorist funds are moved.This team will ultimately be transformed into a permanent Foreign Terrorist Asset Tracking Center in the Treasury Departments Office of Foreign Asset Control(OPAC). This is an extraordinary effort that really illustrates the Treasury Departments creativity in developing new ways to combat terrorists (2001 , FAST online). And in a very unusual cooperative effort, the Secret Service, the FBI, and the private sector, have Joined forces to create a national Cybernetic Response and Reporting System.The first step was a reporting procedure and guidelines for companies to report violations, and these guidelines were published in the trade Journal for Close (CIO, 2002). The CIO Cybernetic Response Reporting Guidelines provide step-by- step information on how businesses should plan and respond to attacks on their information systems, including worms, viruses, hacks and other breaches. The guidelines advise Close and business leaders to establish a relationship with law enforcement today, before their next attack happens.The document also provides suggested points of contact, as well as an easy-to-follow report form detailing the initial information law enforcement needs to investigate. Also, the FBI and the United States Secret Service are expanding the ways that they can share federal Jurisdiction for inve stigating and prosecuting cybercafà © across state lines. The need for cyber reporting guidelines came to the forefront at a CIO magazine conference in October 2001 when a United States Attorney addressed Close on law enforcement post September 1 lath and the need for businesses to report cybercafà © to officials. Discussions are also underway for determining ways in which the Secret Service can work with the INS. As Miller (2001), points out Nearly half a billion foreigners enter the U. S. Each year, and the most stringent demand many of them will face is filling out a form asking where theyre headed; the forms are then shipped off to storage, where they probably wont ever be seen again. What the country needs is a high-tech method of tracking foreigners as they enter and leave. Right now, the federal government doesnt even know how many people are in the country with expired visas, let alone who they are or where they live (Miller, 2001 , 21).It is safe to surmise that the Secret Service will be greatly involved in determining Service by surprise. Indeed, authors such as Steven Emerson have been writing about Islamic terrorists in the United States since the early sass. In his troubling book American Jihad, Emerson details how the United States government and the Secret Service are actively monitoring terrorist cells affiliated with Osama bin Aldens al Qaeda network in eleven cities, from Florida to Boston to Denver to Houston. In January 2003, W. Ralph Bash was sworn in as the 21st Director of the United States Secret service.Director Bash was charged with developing a post September 1 lath strategic plan that could meet the challenges the Secret Service face in their ever expanding mission after being realigned under the Department of Homeland Security. In his strategic plan, Director Bash addresses the Secret Services goals and objectives, along with the means and strategies to accomplish them. The Secret Service has three goals 0 the protective strategic goal, the investigative strategic goal, and the support strategic go al (Secret Service, online).